June 15, 2006
As I just got my exam results back to find that I didn't do nearly as well in 'Infection and Immunity' as I should have done - I'll leave you in Craig's capable hands.
Craig Anderson (email@example.com) writes:
I read a speculation on the flood that mentioned viruses not being able to infect bacteria. I'm a medical student at Boston University with a decent background in epidemiology and evolution and I'll just throw out some of my own speculations on the game combined with some science. Viruses can, in fact, invade any host cell. Viruses work by injecting their own DNA or RNA into a host cell (different viruses infect bacteria, plants, animals) which then enter in to a certain cycle. Cells express the genes in their DNA by the process of transcription and translation which I'm sure anyone who's taken biology is somewhat familiar with. RNA viruses take over the cellular machinery that assembles amino acids into proteins, thus they simply make more and more viruses until the cell explodes releasing those parasites to infect other cells.
DNA viruses actually integrate themselves into the host's genetic code, allowing them to stay dormant for a while, then entering into the lytic cycle described above at an unspecified time. As I've read in your site, 343 guilty spark describes the flood as 'spores' which are released when rangers tap into the spinal cord. Spores are not viral, they're bacterial. Spores are super-resistant hard shells that carry genetic material until environmental conditions are correct where they transform back into bacteria. Anthrax is an example of a spore-forming bacteria. My impression of how the Flood 'disease' works is that:
1. Spores obviously start out being carried by rangers (which are either some higher level multicellular version of this same bacteria, or perhaps a genetically engineered spore carrier, or even a symbiotic host)
2. the rangers then insert themselves into the spinal cord or whatever main nerve axon runs through the host species
3. The spores are released into the central nervous system where the hard spore (thermally sensing that it is safely within the host) transforms into the active bacteria
4. bacteria generally release toxins as their main weapon. The flood's toxin must need a very highly evolved nervous system to operate (in other words it needs a highly cognitive, sentient host)
5. The brain, which is rich with millions of neural connections in intelligent beings, is then attacked by the bacteria and its toxins. Perhaps the way it takes over the host's functions (like muscle movements and even memory) is by forming its own neural connections with the nerve cells already present in the host's brain. Preprogrammed electrical signals (action potentials) may fire into the host's brain from the flood bacterial cells, thus causing the observed behavior from flood infected species. Thus the bacteria itself is similar to a neural cell in that it can form connections with other neurons and send information (in the form of action potentials) and force them to behave a certain way. Not only that, but there are also all the obvious physical mutations inherent with the infection. So, using relatively simple biological functions, the disease could effectively take over the host's entire body and mind and incite it towards extreme homicidal behavior.
6. Perhaps the bacteria also stimulates the manufacture and release of certain 'flood' hormones (which become airborne) that keep large groups of hosts together and on the same wavelength. This could account for how flood-infected species seem to act as one coherent unit the whole telepathy thing doesn't really fly with me, unless it's that crazy gravemind thing that seems to have an immense amount of cognitive ability.
The 'infected trees' may demonstrate how life forms without nerve impulses are only infected very superficially. The higher the level of sentience, the more effective the disease is at its function.
So I'm gonna keep rambling here and speculate a little more. I don't think that this 'forerunner' would just stumble upon, capture, and decide to study these things.. they don't seem like naturally evolving species; no evolutionary system could sustain something like this. Plus, if you just randomly discovered something like this, your first thought wouldn't be to build giant ecosystem-imitating rings capable of destroying all sentient life just to STUDY these blammers. I think the forerunner were definitely trying to biologically engineer these things. There must have been some enemy which the Flood was meant to destroy; or perhaps even warring factions within the forerunner spurred on the development of the flood as a weapon. The halo's are perfect testing arenas for biological warfare. They can imitate any climate, probably even those vastly different from earth-like planets, to see how this bio-weapon will perform. I think some forerunner military and scientific minds got together on these facilities to prepare to fight something or someone.
As for the main weapon of Halo and its purpose, function, and use, I'll have to contemplate more. But it seems to me that its first use didn't just destroy all life in the galaxy. 101,217 years is not enough time for new life to spring up on more than one planet. The amount of time it takes life to evolve from single celled organisms to more complex forms like plants and animals takes time in the billions of yearsힿ there's gotta be some other explanation, and I don't buy that there's a type of energy burst that can pick out sentient beings and kill just them and not other life. Maybe the main weapon of Halo is actually some kind of Flood dispersal weapon If they can teleport things back and forth across the Halo, maybe they can use a super powerful energy burst to teleport flood carriers to the far reaching parts of the galaxy.. This would effectively kill off any sentient life on planets, moons, and perhaps the teleporting burst could even transfer the flood to starships. Then there is the ark which I would suppose is somehow resistant to the energy burst released by the halo because of its own energy field or the material it is made out of it must have contained the few remaining forerunners, or slave species, or something to carry on anyway. Maybe the Halo is fortress world because it is the place from which the forerunner made their final stand against something, using the main weapon to disperse their biologically engineered flood super weapon in a last ditch attempt at survival.
permalink | The Flood
I dismiss too much as 'dramatic tension' I feel. That's why I rely on people like J Esterline to point it out for me!
J Esterline (firstname.lastname@example.org) writes:
A quick thought: Why doesn't Gravemind intervene on the side of the Arbiter in the fight against Tartarus? After all, there is evidence of a fight for the Index earlier on. Is the outcome (the Arbiter stopping the activation of the Halos) a foregone conclusion? One would think not, given how close the Halo is to firing at the end of the fight. Maybe Gravemind's omnipresence (at least through infection forms, as commander of the Flood), or his near-omniscience, is showing a deficiency here; or, perhaps, his willingness and confidence to gamble in such a situation is exhibited? Surely he is a "sentient being" and thus susceptible to the destructive power of halo; even if being on a halo is protection (this is never stated, to my knowledge), his flood would be starved for hosts, as intended by the Forerunners. All in all, a bit of a puzzle, it seems.
permalink | Gravemind
Never liked Noah anyway.
thom haley (email@example.com) writes:
I've been speculating over the previous posts made on the location of the Ark and, having brewed over everyone's theories, I feel the most likely explanation is that the ark is located on earth under Old Mombasa as Africa has been known as "The cradle of civilisation".
My meaning is that if the Ark is some kind of stasis device or sanctuary from the Halos then that title would make sense in that it is where civilisation emerged following the first use of the Halos by the Forerunners.
I've been exploring this "cradle" idea too and one meaning of the word (other than a figurative place of origin where something flourishes) is "A framework a ship rests in for repairs". The theory surrounding shots from the Halo 3 trailer of the Ark having a dock for the ship truth takes to earth at Halo 2's close would match this description well.
One other thing that seems strange to me is the fact that the Ark of the Covenant in the bible was renowned for it's mysterious powers against Israel's enemies, from Samuel chapters 5 & 6 (Samuel having been 117's best friend?) yet everyone seems to have put the ark down as a "Noah's ark" against the Flood.
Deepening my research into the Ark of the Covenant I found that it could only be accessed one day of the year (the day of atonement) by the high priest (a heirarch) who would make an offering of goat's blood (mysterious blood doors as beneath reach). It is also said that God's righteous anger dwelt within the ark "in unapproachable light" (the light seen in the halo 3 trailer) it was said too that the high priest must shield his eyes because "none shall see me and live".
All this says to me that rather than some wonderful safe haven, the Ark is in fact "The Ark of the Covenant" to strike down the enemies of their covenant through the remote detonation system. This also would explain why Truth has the ship that is the "key" to the Ark's "lock", he's the only one who can gain access to the Ark and it's power.
permalink | Ark
A light hearted, cheery story to end the news day with . . .
Pinkuh (firstname.lastname@example.org) writes:
According to the books, the Spartans themselves have been raised on a wonderful combination of drugs, both injected and oral, that have made them grow, and fill out the way Oni needed them too.
It is pretty safe to assume that one of these drugs was a steroid. Steroids, when taken by men or women can have a rather adverse effect. This effect is a MUCH higher then average sex drive. Many men and women who take the drugs wind up losing themselves in strange sexual situations, and wind up being almost feral when it comes to their life.
That being said, the Spartans would be feeling much the same way. Knowing the adverse sexual affects of steroids, Oni would have had a counter measure to keep the Sex drives under control. This is the "reduced Sex drive" that we read about in the books.
They are not talking about them being completely numb and unable to want or have sex, they just have a fail safe in them that makes it possible for them to control the urges just like everyone else. Otherwise we would have Spartans running around humping everything that would hold still long enough, and I am sure the UNSC is happy to have their coke machines not being violated.
Well I liked it
permalink | SPARTAN
Dec 69 | Jan 02 | Feb 02 | Mar 02 | Apr 02 | May 02 | Jun 02
Jul 02 | Aug 02 | Sep 02 | Oct 02 | Nov 02 | Dec 02 | Jan 03
Feb 03 | Mar 03 | Apr 03 | May 03 | Jun 03 | Jul 03 | Aug 03
Sep 03 | Oct 03 | Nov 03 | Dec 03 | Jan 04 | Feb 04 | Mar 04
Apr 04 | Jun 04 | Jul 04 | Aug 04 | Sep 04 | Oct 04 | Dec 04
Jan 05 | Feb 05 | Mar 05 | Apr 05 | May 05 | Jun 05 | Jul 05
Sep 05 | Oct 05 | Nov 05 | Dec 05 | Jan 06 | Feb 06 | Mar 06
Apr 06 | May 06 | Jun 06 | Jul 06 | Aug 06 | Sep 06 | Oct 06
Nov 06 | Dec 06 | Jan 07 | Feb 07 | Apr 07 | Aug 07 | Sep 07
Nov 07 | Jan 08 | Apr 08 | May 08 | Jun 08 | Jul 08 | Aug 08
Sep 08 | Oct 08 | Dec 08 | Jan 09 | Feb 09 | Mar 09 | Apr 09
Sep 09 | May 10 | Jun 10 | Aug 10